Root : Tap roots are cylindrical, 30 to 35 cm in length and 0.2 to 0.5 cm in diameter, light brown
to reddish brown in colour, almost tasteless, fracture fibrous. Secondary and tertiary roots
are few, fibrous. T.S. of root is circular in outline and shows cork, cortex, phloem and xylem with
tetrach to pentarch stele. In fibrous roots cortex consists of 8 to 10 layers of spherical to oval
thin walled parenchymatous cells with large intercellular spaces and irregular cavities forming aerenchyma.
Stem : Stem is herbaceous, 2.5 to 5 mm in diameter, somewhat woody at the base, rooting from
nodes, sub-quadrangular, adpressed, strigose or hairy when young. Fracture is clean exposing hollow
cavity at the centre. Taste is slightly bitter.
Leaf : Leaves are small, simple, opposite, subsessile, obtuse, obovate, spathulate, cuneate at
the base, deeply and sharply serrate towards apex. Both surfaces are shiny, hairy with medifixed
white strigose hairs, nerves and margins more hairy.