Root : Root is cylindrical, straight or knotted when old, black to brown in colour, taste bitter,
odour aromatic, fracture splintery. In transverse section, young root is almost circular in outline.
Epidermis is composed of thick walled, cubical to radially elongated cells followed by
of 5-7 layers of oblong or oval to polygonal parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces.
In mature root, bark is about 5-8 mm thick; the central woody cylinder occupying about 2/3 rd
os the section.
Stem :Stem pieces are woody, hard, dirty red in colour, dotted with minute rough globules,
matted with network, hard to break, fracture splintery. Transverse section of young stem is
circular in outline, sometimes showing wavy undulations. Epidermal cells are cubical to barrel
shaped, covered with a thin cuticle. Trichomes are generally 2-armed or T-shaped, unicellular.
Otermost 2-3 layers of cortex are collenchymatous, followed by parenchymatopus zone.
Leaf : Leaves are simple, ovate, acuminate, oblong, petiolate, petiole short , margin entire,
7.15 * 5-7.5 cm, upper surface glossy and pale benath, mainly coriaceous when fresh, dried leaf
tough and leathery. T.S. of leaf through midrib shows thin cuticle with 2 armed
on the main vein of lower epidermis. Lower epidermis is composed of radially elongated thin